Beat The Decline: Blood Supply Shortage In Summer and How To Stop It

Every two seconds, a patient in the United States is in need of lifesaving blood. With this in mind, the American Red Cross estimates that over 41,000 blood donations are needed every single day. Actually, this number is possible to meet, considering that there are billions of people in the United States, let alone the whole world.

The only problem? There are not enough blood donors who are willing to give and give, just as long as they have enough blood in their bodies.

The worst part is… those who donate are usually out of the scene in significant breaks of their lives, which is during the summertime.

With this article, you will be able to understand why summer is, unfortunately, not a good time for patients who depend on blood for their lives. It will also help you realize that blood donation should not stop when the summer season kicks in.



According to the American Red Cross, blood donations tend to decline when summertime starts. To support this data, they have their recent spring survey of their blood and platelet donors, which states that almost 90 percent of them have planned to take vacations this summer season.

This best explains the decrease in blood supply during summer. People take vacations— sometimes out of the country— and enjoy their free days apart from school or work, so, as a result, blood donation centers are not getting enough blood bags from their usual donors. In short, those patients who need blood every two seconds are not receiving enough lifesaving blood that they should be acquiring.

Sadly, patients who rely on blood cannot easily take vacations like their donors, so a lot of blood transfusions are still needed even in summer. The American Red Cross alone is in need of an estimated 15,000 blood donations every day for about 2,600 centers and hospitals nationwide, so they heavily rely on their volunteer donors to do the wonders of blood donation.

What is more depressing than active donors taking vacation is the fact that the donating population is actually a small one.

Greg Cogoli, a consistent blood donor and volunteer coordinator for the American Red Cross’ blood services in Tuscon, Arizona, states that out of all the eligible blood donors, only less than 10 percent actually give blood. “Very few people ever donate, and of those people who donate, a large percentage donate once and don’t donate again,” he said. “So it really, really behooves anyone who can to give it a try.”

Patients who rely on blood to save their lives actually need it because of various medical reasons, such as blood disorders, cancer, accidents, surgeries, and more. This is why the need for sufficient blood supply never wanes.



The American Red Cross, as well as other organizations, is highly encouraging more people to donate blood and give the gift of life— especially in summertime.

Because blood shortage is mostly felt during the summer season, it should be a must for more eligible donors to consider going to blood banks or blood drives and donating blood. This kind of participation is important not only for the American Red Cross, but for the people who will be receiving it, as well. All blood types will be greatly appreciated, although there is an intense need for negative types, such as A negative, B negative, and O negative.

Aside from whole blood donations, the American Red Cross states that there is also an immediate need for blood platelets. This component is helpful in blood clotting, so if you are willing to donate whole blood, why not throw in some of your platelets, too?



This year, the American Red Cross is organizing an event that is directly aimed at people who are considering taking vacations throughout the summer.

The “100 days of summer, 100 days of hope” campaign is being pushed by the Red Cross just in time for World Blood Donor Day on June 14… and for the rest of the summer period. It is officially sponsored by Suburban Propane, a nationwide distributor of fuel oil and propane and a marketer of natural electricity and gas in Whippany, New Jersey. This event is also organized for the Memorial Day holiday, which started on May 25.

To help encourage potential donors to participate in this lifesaving event, those who have donated blood from May 23-25 received a limited-edition Red Cross RuMe tote bag.

This campaign is sure to help increase the supply of blood throughout the summer. Suburban Propane’s CEO Mark Wienberg assures the public— and the patients— that the amount of blood and platelets in centers will be enough for hundreds of patients who need them. “The Suburban Propane family is proud to support the mission of the Red Cross and help ensure that blood and platelets are available for patients in need during the challenging summer months,” Wienberg says. “By partnering with the Red Cross, we are able to continue a noble cause that improves the lives of those in our communities.”



To join the campaign and donate your own blood, you are free to choose from three options by the American Red Cross: you can call them at 1-800-RED CROSS (1-800-733-2767), visit their website at, or download their American Red Cross Blood Donor App, so you can have the comfort of setting up a blood donation appointment on your own mobile phone.

Whatever your choice is, just make sure that you meet all the donor eligibility requirements and— voila!— you will be able to help your fellow countrymen retain their lives with every pint of your blood.

Do not let the supply of blood decline this summer. Make a move and be a hero, today!

Finally, Gays Can Donate: Gay Ban On Blood Donation Ready To Be Lifted

Blood donation, just like any other activities involving the society, also has its own rules and regulations. These pointers serve as the basis for potential, interested donors if they are eligible to give blood or not.

The basic set of rules— such as age limit, weight limit, health status, and identification— is, oftentimes, not a big problem for people who wish to donate, since the bracket for age and weight is very attainable by most of the world’s population (minimum of 17 years old for the age and at least 110 pounds for the weight in the United States). The other rules, though— such as illness history, tattoos/piercings, malaria risk, etcetera— come as a challenge for donors who just want to help. If proven that you have a certain disease that could affect the blood you will be giving, then you will be deferred for as long as you have that illness.

Such is the case of homosexual and bisexual people— especially men. But with the recent news of gay ban on blood donations being scrapped by the authorities, things could be brighter for the gay community and the blood industry… or not.

In this article, we will discover how— and why— homosexual men were banned in the first place, as well as the impact of recent events in both the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and the blood donation community.



On May 12, 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a new federal policy, stating that homosexual and bisexual men are now allowed to donate blood— a far cry from their situation since they were banned from donating blood.

This statement is included in the FDA’s draft guidance, which was initially proposed last December, and will be used to collect comments/reactions from the public for 60 days before releasing the final policy.

So, what was the reason for this sudden turn of events?

According to Dr. Peter Marks, FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research deputy director, they decided to consider lifting the blood donation ban on gay men because of the events which transpired in Australia, a country which implemented a one-year deferral for homosexuals fifteen years ago. “These studies documented no adverse effects on the safety of the blood supply with a one-year deferral,” Marks said. The innovation in technology and changing times also contributed to the ban being completely obsolete.

If this policy is ever implemented, the US will be one with various countries— such as Sweden, UK, Australia, and Argentina, all of which had already imposed the one-year deferral in gay men— in terms of their regulations in blood donation. Other countries which do not totally ban homosexuals from donating (but have deferrals, too) are South Africa (six months deferral), and Canada (five years deferral).

In addition, the American Medical Association’s president, Dr. Robert Wah, commends the FDA for their life-changing decision to stop the gay ban in blood donation. “The AMA fully supports and has been a strong advocate for eliminating these current public policies as we believe that the latest scientific evidence should dictate blood and tissue donation deferral periods to ensure the safety of the national blood supply,” Wah said. “The AMA’s policy supports using scientifically-based deferral periods that are consistently and fairly applied to donors based on their risk level.”



Homosexuals, especially men, were not always deferred as blood donors. However, an epidemic in the late 1970s changed the rules and regulations of blood donation when it comes to gay men.

If you are a keen observer of the blood donation rules, you may notice the clause on sexual behavior/disease. One important rule for male blood donors is you cannot donate if you “are a man who has had sex with another man since 1977, even once.” This is the year when the AIDS, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, hit the shores of the United States.

Men who have had sexual intercourse with other men, or MSM, were considered to carry HIV or hepatitis B, which can easily affect the quality of their blood. This is why MSM were banned from giving blood at all— until now.

The policy of permanent deferral for MSM— or even people who have had sexual contact with sex workers, injected drugs in their system, or women who engaged in sexual intercourse with a member of the MSM— became apparent in 1983 and was recognized by all blood donation centers until today.



This proposed policy seems like a breath of fresh air for gay men who have been wishing to donate blood ever since they reached the required age. But wait— there is more!

According to Marks, almost half of the deferred gay men population will now be able to freely donate blood because of this policy. But, the proposed action will only be good news to those who are not sexually active anymore.

Yes, this “freedom” comes with a little catch: gay men who are sexually active are still restricted from donating blood, since the new US policy will implement a maximum one-year deferral for homosexuals, especially men in monogamous relationships. In short, if you are a man and you just engaged in a same-gender sexual activity in, let us say, the past month, then you are still banned from donating blood.

It does not sound good now, does it?

While it is considered as a small step to the improvement of the way people view the gay community, activists still question the one-year deferral decision. According to Slate columnist Mark Joseph Stern, “The one-year deferral policy is still rooted in an outdated, insulting vision of gay men as diseased, promiscuous lechers. It’s utterly illogical to forbid a monogamous gay man from donating while permitting promiscuous straight people to give as much blood as they want,” he said.

However, this proposed policy will still be beneficial to the gay community. Finally, homosexuals who want to donate blood can do so— as long as they have practiced abstinence for a full year. Nevertheless, its impact in the MSM group will surely be felt by both the LGBT community and the blood industry.



Yes, this news is a good one for gay men, but it will be most beneficial to hundreds of blood donation centers across the US.

Blood shortages are not an uncommon thing in blood donation centers, and when this proposed policy is finally implemented, it is guaranteed that the number of blood donations will double up, resulting to an improvement in the blood supply all over the US.

Because of the expected increase in blood supply because of potential homosexual donors, the FDA will make sure that the blood coming from them will fit the health standards. This is why they will implement a blood surveillance system that aims to ensure the overall safety of the expected blood supply, as well as monitor the effect of the change in policy once it is implemented.



There is no doubt that the change homosexuals have been dreaming of for the past three decades is just around the corner. Once the ban on gay men donating blood has been implemented, there will surely be an obvious change in both communities: the blood donation community and the gay community.

When that time comes, the term “gay” will not just be used to represent other men’s sexual orientation, but also for the feeling of euphoria that they will experience once they donate blood.

From Blood to Nerve Cells— A New Medical Breakthrough

Over the years, the human blood has been proven to have a huge importance in the everyday treatment of various illnesses, thus saving millions of lives across the globe. Its components— red blood cells, plasma, and platelets— have become helpful instruments in battling numerous diseases and injuries.

The red cells from a donated blood can help in the treatment of cancer, anemia, heart disease, kidney disease, fractures, and stomach disease. Red blood cells are also used in open heart surgeries, joint replacements, obstetrics (women who are pregnant or just gave birth, as well as young children), and even situations where trauma is involved, especially in road accidents.

Plasma and platelets, on the other hand, are used in several medical problems as well. Plasma is known for its ability to prevent bleeding, as well as treat burns, trauma, and blood diseases. Platelets are essential in helping patients with low platelet count, as well as blood clotting and repairing of damaged body tissues.

All of these contributions are already well-known to mankind, but did you know that there is a new medical breakthrough that can change the future of medicine and the way we look at blood? Read on and discover how the human blood can benefit us to a whole new level.


From one cell to another

Just recently, a group of Canadian scientists have discovered a new potential use of the human blood— in the form of nerve cells.

Mick Bhatia, director of McMaster University’s Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute in Hamilton, Ontario, led the team of scientists that figured out how to convert a body component into another one. Through their findings, they learned that a blood sample can actually be turned into nerve cells, which include those that are accountable for numbness, pain, and other body sensations.

“Nobody has ever done this with adult blood, ever,” says Bhatia. “Now we can take easy-to-obtain blood samples and make the main cell types of neurological systems— the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system— in a dish that is specialized for each patient.”

Bhatia also explained that with this groundbreaking discovery, producing essential cells in the body is now possible. “We can actually take a patient’s blood sample, as routinely performed in a doctor’s office, and with it we can produce one million sensory neurons that make up the peripheral nerves in short order with this new approach.”

“We can also make central nervous system cells, as the blood to neural conversion technology we developed creates neural stem cells during the process of conversion,” he added.


The birth of blood-derived nerve cells

This revolutionary discovery was achieved by scientists using a new technique, which involves stem cells being extracted from fresh and frozen samples of adult blood and umbilical cord. These cells are usually the ones which can become red blood cells, or different kinds of white blood cells responsible for battling pathogens.

After the extraction, these stem cells are converted to neural stem cells for about a month, using a patented technique. Then, they are manipulated into various types of nerve cells— including those which can be found in the peripheral nervous center throughout the legs, arms, and the rest of the human body.

“We take a cell whose identity— its name, address, what it does as a blood cell— we tell it to forget all of that, and we educate it to become a neural cell,” explains Bhatia, comparing the process to converting a lawyer into a surgeon, which is a completely different profession.

“It’s literally a re-education process. We convert the cell completely to a different fate,” he added.

Bhatia’s team estimates that they can create approximately 100 million sensory neurons with just 50,000 adult blood cells, which can cost a donor less than a drop of his/her blood. Now, think about how many sensory neurons scientists can generate with one bag of donated blood.


New pain killer in town

Because of this sensational discovery, Bhatia and his team have made new medical advances that will benefit researchers and patients all over the world.

For example, they have paved the way for researchers to test and study potential medicines for pain and other conditions of the nervous system. With millions of generated nerve cells, it could be possible to create a treatment for pain that is similar to the patient’s genetic signature.

In line with this, their aim is to discover a new drug that is different from usual narcotics and opioids. They hope that the results of their study would bring out a whole new level of medicine that specifically targets the damaged neurons in the peripheral nervous system and not the brain and the whole central nervous system, as doing so causes the body to unwillingly experience unusual— sometimes addictive— side effects.

“You don’t want to feel sleepy or unaware, you just want your pain to go away,” says Bhatia. “But up until now, no one’s had the ability and required technology to actually test different drugs to find something that targets the peripheral nervous system and not the central nervous system in a patient-specific or personalized manner.”


For disease and beyond

Aside from hopefully producing a new potential drug that could be used to eliminate pain without giving the user a hard time in exchange of the relief he/she will be getting, Bhatia and his team also hopes to achieve more medical innovation with their latest discovery and patented technique.

First, they are expecting to further develop these blood-derived nerve cells into different kinds of neurons that could be transplanted into patients to reestablish healthy brain cells, which will be helpful in the treatment of various diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, or Lou Gehrig’s disease.

Bhatia and his team also have their eyes on the possibility that retinal nerve cells could be produced out of this technology, which will greatly benefit people who are losing their eyesight due to macular degeneration that comes with aging.

Indeed, the future looks bright in the field of blood and medicine.

The Lowdown on Platelet Products

Blood, as red and plain as it looks, is not just a simple human liquid. It is actually composed of many components responsible for the whole safety of the body. Each component contains essential proteins, vitamins, and minerals that have individual purposes and effects in the overall health status of our body. These parts are identified as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and platelets.

Although it is only less than 1% of the human blood (and it is sharing a position with white blood cells), platelets are just as important as the other components of the blood. Also called thrombocytes, platelets are colorless like plasma, and they help in the prevention or complete halt of bleeding. These small cell fragments are very instrumental in various medical procedures, such as organ transplants, cancer treatments, or surgery. And, unlike other blood components— which can be stored for more than 20 days to a full year— platelets can only be stored for five days, in room temperature and with constant agitation to prevent possible clumping.

Just like plasma, platelets are also used in lifesaving products that are very helpful in patients of various diseases. This article will serve as a product guide to people who want to know what platelet-derived products, methods, and medications are there to aid in their ailments.



Platelets can be turned and used into various products for patients with different kinds of illnesses. The following are some of the most recognized platelet-derived products:

Frozen platelets

Once out of the body and separated from the blood, platelets can be cryopreserved— a common method used to preserve cells or tissues by freezing them at very low temperatures— at negative 80 degrees Celsius for up to ten years, in 6% dimethylsulfoxide or DMSO. Frozen platelets serve as the only alternative to fresh platelets.

Cold liquid platelets

These are platelets which are stored at room temperature (22 degrees Celsius) for up to five days. As of the present time, three approaches are used to store cold liquid platelets: slowing down cytoskeleton actin assembly or using antifreeze glycoproteins to prevent the shape changes which are often seen in chilled platelets, and making use of ThromboSol as a cryoprotectant to give better retention of in vitro function.

Photohemically-treated platelets

This kind of platelet-derived product is being used clinically in Europe, and is effective in deactivate bacteria, protozoa, and viruses by destroying their DNA.

Lyophilized platelets

Although the effective and positive result of lyophilized platelets in humans has not been proven yet, they have shown hemostatic effects in thrombocytopenic animals, such as rabbits and rats. Because of the fixation step in processing lyophilized platelets (they are fixed by 1.8% paraformaldehyde and freeze-dried with 5% albumin), they have been proven to kill microorganisms and increase their own shelf life.

Platelet-derived microparticles

Platelet-derived microparticles can come from outdated platelets, and can be stored for up to two years at four degrees Celsius. This product can be used to patients who are unresponsive or resistant to conventional transfusions of platelets.

Culture-derived platelets

Culture-derived platelets have not been proven to do any positive results in patients yet, but further studies and research are still ongoing. However, these platelets— which were the result of a laboratory experiment in 1995, which involved growing platelets from megakaryocyte progenitors— have been declared to be similar to fresh platelets.



Aside from the platelet-derived products mentioned above, there are also substances known as platelet-derived growth factors or PDGF. These are released from platelets during the formation of clot. PDFG has many variants, and the following are from human platelets (all in lyophilized powder form):

Platelet-Derived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor

Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, or ECGF1, is the one responsible for promoting angiogenesis in vivo and stimulating the in vitro growth of various endothelial cells. It is also the angiogenesis of colon cancer in humans.

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AA

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AA, or PDGF -AA, is one of the three growth factors with Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the recombinant host. PDGF -AA is used for cell culture applications.

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor -BB

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor -BB is the other PDGF with E. coli as the recombinant host. PDGF -BB mediates the tropism of hMSCs (human mesenchymal stem cells) for malignant gliomas.

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AB

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AB is, simply put, the combination of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AA and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB. It is also used for cell culture applications.



There is a new gel in town!

Aside from the growth factors and platelet-derived products mentioned above, there is a new medical breakthrough that involves human blood platelets: the platelet gel.

Platelet gel facts

Basically, it seems like a usual healing gel that a patient will apply on the infected area of his/her body. But, what sets it apart from other medication gels is the fact that it contains platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is a concentrated mixture of substances that is very essential in healing.

How platelet gel works

This platelet gel, which is widely known as the Magellan Bio-Bandage, works by copying the final stage of clotting. The PRP activates platelets, turns fibrinogen to fibrin, and encourages platelet aggregation. Then, calcium chloride is included to counteract the anticoagulant citrate, therefore creating a glue-like texture that is rich in platelets.

Uses of platelet gel

The gel has been thought to improve healing and serve as a barrier against potential infection.  Currently, it is being used in the following:

  • various studies addressing thermal burns
  • post-surgery sternum repairs
  • cosmetic surgery
  • hip-bone injury healing
  • controlling of unsuturable bleeding sites
  • oozing diffusion connected with redo open-heart surgeries
  • macular hole surgery



By this time, it is normal to think about the wonders of the body, especially the human blood. Just think of the many, many lifesaving options you have inside your body!

The human blood alone is swarming with various health components that can benefit not only you, but also millions of patients around the world. Plasma, which is widely recognized, is definitely one of them, but do not forget platelets. They may only comprise less than 1% of the blood, but when processed and strengthened, they are powerful enough to save lives.

From Plasma to Products: Various Human Plasma Solutions

Blood is a real lifesaving bodily fluid— not only for people who have an ample volume of healthy blood flowing through their veins, but also for those who have lost so much and now in desperate need of clean blood that could ultimately save their lives and help them regain their strength and energy.

Aside from the common knowledge about blood donation (one person gives his/her own blood to a licensed institution, then that blood will be transfused to another person who needs it), the human blood given in donations is also used in developing, creating, and manufacturing various therapies and medicines— specifically its dominating component, which is plasma.

Plasma, the clear liquid which makes up 55% of the human blood, has been— and is still being— used for several lifesaving medications. In this article, you will discover what these products are and their benefits to those ailing people who need immediate and guaranteed recovery.



Plasma, when extracted from the body, can serve many purposes. Once out of the system and into the bag, it is broken down into important substances that will eventually lead to three plasma product types: immunoglobulins, human albumin solutions, and coagulation factors.


Immunoglobulins are essential antibodies that are part of the immune system, which is, as we all know, is the body’s natural defense against all kinds of diseases and illnesses. They are the ones responsible for warding off various infections, viruses, and bacteria.

These components are divided into two parts: specific and non-specific.

Specific immunoglobulins are often used to develop products that are given to patients who have been exposed to certain infections. Some examples of products derived from specific immunoglobulins are the antidotes to rabies, hepatitis B, tetanus, and chickenpox. The anti-D immunoglobulin, a product which is given to rhesus-negative (RhD negative) pregnant women to prevent them from becoming sensitive to their baby’s blood, is also a perfect example of a specific immunoglobulin product.

Non-specific immunoglobulins are often used for people who are having problems producing their own antibodies. Whether by birth or because of certain treatments (which make them incapable of making good antibodies), some people need non-specific immunoglobulins to make up for their faulty immune system.

Human albumin solutions

Albumin is an important component of plasma. It is responsible for cleaning the blood, maintaining the right amount of fluid around the body, and carrying vital substances in the body. It is also the dominant protein in plasma.

Solutions made out of human albumin are helpful in treating various illnesses and accidents, such as:

  • liver disease
  • kidney disease
  • burns
  • sepsis
  • incorrect level of body circulation

Coagulation factors

Coagulation (or clotting) factors are plasma proteins that function with platelets to clot blood. They aid in controlling bleeding and ensure that the blood clots properly.

Clotting factors can be used for treatments concerning bleeding/blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia. People with this kind of illness can be treated with replacement therapy, wherein it will replace a certain missing clotting factor.



Aside from the three main types— and the products that can be derived from them— mentioned, there are other products that were made possible by plasma.

Heparin anticoagulant

Heparin is an anticoagulant substance that is used to prevent blood clot formation during or after a certain surgery. It is also used as a treatment for different circulatory, lung, and heart disorders with a higher risk of blood clot formation.

Antihemophilic Factor

Like clotting factors, antihemophilic factors are used to aid proper blood clotting. It is put inside the body either by vein injection or addition in an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle in your vein.

Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex

Like other plasma products, the anti-inhibitor coagulant complex is used to control bleeding, especially in patients with hemophilia A and B during surgery. It has vital substances that help the blood clot and stop bleeding. It can be given by means of powder for solution.

Antithrombin (Recombinant)

A recombinant antithrombin is used to prevent perioperative and peripartum thromboembolic events in patients with hereditary antithrombin deficiency. Its function is to regulate the inflammatory process and blood clotting.


Corifact is an FXIII concentrate that is used for routine prophylactic treatment and perioperative management of bleeding in surgeries for adults. It is also intended for patients with congenital FXIII deficiency.

Kcentra (Prothrombin Complex Concentrate, Human)

Kcentra is used for acute major bleeding therapies, urgent surgery cases, and immediate reversal of coagulation factor deficiency received by a patient.

Protein C Concentrate (Human)

Protein C Concentrate is used for treatment and possible prevention of purpura fulminans and venous thrombosis in patients who suffer from congenital Protein C deficiency. It is also used as a replacement therapy for treatment of warfarin-induced skin necrosis that is acquired during oral anticoagulation.


Medicines and injectable proteins are not the only beneficial things that indirect recipients of your plasma could be thankful for. Another product that can be developed out of the plasma in your body is fresh, frozen plasma.

So, how does this work?

When you donate blood, a special machine will process it and separate the plasma from your blood. Then, it will be frozen and stored until a patient that requires a plasma transfusion comes along. When that happens, your fresh, frozen plasma will be thawed under controlled conditions and will be transfused to that patient who is in need of your lifesaving plasma.

Frozen plasma is intended for multiple reasons/medical cases, such as:

  • multiple coagulation factor replacement for patients who suffer from liver disease deficiencies
  • replacement therapy for patients undergoing liver transplant or cardiac surgery
  • plasma exchange with patients who have thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  • treatment of bleeding that is caused by multiple factor deficiencies
  • treatment of people with coagulation factor deficiencies
  • treatment of patients with rare plasma protein deficiencies
  • replacement of labile clotting factors and other proteins


Plasma is a very helpful component. Once transfused to a patient’s body, it will serve a very good purpose. But, be careful with the side effects. Some of the harmful effects of plasma transfusion are acute lung injury, haemolysis, anaphylactic and allergic reactions, and even the dreaded Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Consult your doctor very well before a plasma transfusion.